The most basic watches tell time only, but others feature complications. One of the most common varieties of complications is the date complication. A date complication can be as simple as the day and date in a window on the dial or as sophisticated as a perpetual calendar complication.
Compared to other more intricate complications like a tourbillon or moonphase, the date complication is relatively simple. However, the perpetual calendar complication is one of the most complex versions of a date complication. It’s somewhat similar to an annual calendar complication in its function. It displays the day, date, and month. The difference between the perpetual and annual calendar is in the operation of the function. An annual calendar has to be manually adjusted once a year to account for the leap year. Instead, the perpetual complication is designed to account for the leap year and can function properly without manual adjustment for hundreds of years.
The Invention of the Complicated Function
The history of the complication dates back to the mid-1700’s. In fact, the function actually pre-dates the annual calendar by many decades. An English horologist named Thomas Mudge invented the earliest known watch with a perpetual calendar complication in 1762. Mudge made a name for himself in watchmaking at an early age. He invented the detached lever escapement in 1755. The original perpetual calendar pocket watch currently resides at The British Museum in London.
After Mudge’s invention, the complication didn’t appear again for about 100 years. In 1864, Patek Philippe created a pocket watch featuring the intricate function. It took them 25 years to patent the mechanism in 1889. Still, it wasn’t until several decades later that the complication saw incorporation into the first wristwatch.
The First Perpetual Calendar Wristwatch
Patek Philippe was also the creator of the first perpetual calendar wristwatch. They produced the first compact perpetual calendar movement just about ten years later in 1898 for a women’s pendant watch. Then, in 1925, a wealthy collector of Patek Philippe watches named Thomas Emery commissioned the first wristwatch featuring the complication. Patek Philippe used the same compact, 34.4mm caliber created in 1898. It took them two years to produce the intricate timepiece.
Breguet was the next brand to create a perpetual calendar wristwatch, just a few years later in 1929. Their compact movement was even smaller than Patek Philippe’s, measuring just 22.5mm. Jaeger-LeCoultre followed Breguet several years later in 1937. Their unique rectangular perpetual calendar is thought to have been created in commemoration of the partnership between LeCoultre and Edmond Jaeger that resulted in the Jaeger LeCoultre brand.
The Perpetual Calendar Complication Through the Decades
Like the original perpetual calendar wristwatch made by Patek Philippe, most of the early perpetual watches were commission timepieces. It wasn’t until the 1940’s that serial production of the watches ramped up. Then, it wasn’t until the 1960’s that the first automatic perpetual calendar watches began hitting the market.
Another significant moment for the perpetual calendar complication came in 1985. That year, IWC made one of the most profound advancements in the complication’s mechanism. They designed a synchronized caliber that uses only a single crown for adjustment, as one would for a simpler timepiece.
Today, the complication continues to fascinate watchmakers and watch enthusiasts. Some of the most elaborate and expensive timepieces showcase the complication, making them highly valuable. The perpetual calendar function doesn’t just serve the practical purpose of showcasing the day, date, and month without adjustment. It serves to elevate the craft of watchmaking itself.